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Causes, symptoms, and everything of periodontal disease

In this article

    Periodontal disease, often called gum disease, is a bacterial infection affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.

    Poor oral hygiene is a primary cause and results in plaque buildup and gum inflammation. If left untreated, it can progress to tooth loss and other health complications.

    Here, let's find the real reasons cause periodontal disease and more important things about it.

    What is periodontal disease caused by

    Periodontal disease is mainly caused by plaque buildup along the gumline. When plaque, a sticky film of bacteria, accumulates on teeth, it can harden into tartar and causes gum inflammation (gingivitis).

    If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, where the gums pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that become infected.

    Other factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, genetics, hormonal changes, certain medications, and underlying health conditions can also contribute to the development of periodontal disease.

    What is periodontal disease symptoms

    Periodontal disease/Gum disease, can manifest through various symptoms, including:

    • Gum inflammation: Swollen, red, or tender gums are common signs of gingivitis, the early stage of periodontal disease.

    • Bleeding gums: Gums that bleed during brushing, flossing, or eating hard foods.

    • Receding gums: As gum disease progresses, the gums may recede or pull away from the teeth.

    • Persistent bad breath: Halitosis, or chronic bad breath, can result from bacteria accumulating in the mouth due to gum disease.

    • Loose or shifting teeth: Advanced periodontitis can cause the supporting bone to deteriorate.

    • Pain or discomfort: Tooth sensitivity, pain when chewing, or discomfort around the gums and teeth may occur in advanced stages of gum disease.

    • Pus between teeth and gums: In severe cases of periodontitis, pockets of pus may develop between the teeth and gums.

    Professional periodontal therapy and treatment

    Professional periodontal therapy and treatment aim to address gum disease and restore oral health. Here are some common approaches:

    1. Scaling and root planing: This deep cleaning procedure involves removing plaque and tartar from below the gumline (scaling) and smoothing the tooth roots to discourage bacterial growth (root planing).

    2. Periodontal surgery: In advanced cases of gum disease, surgical intervention may be necessary to reduce pocket depths, remove diseased tissue, and regenerate lost bone and gum tissue.

    3. Antibiotic therapy: Antibiotics, either taken orally or applied topically, may be prescribed to help control bacterial infection and inflammation in the gums.

    4. Laser therapy: Laser technology may be used to remove diseased tissue, disinfect periodontal pockets, and promote gum tissue regeneration.

    Periodontal maintenance vs. regular cleaning


    Periodontal maintenance

    Regular cleaning


    Every 3-4 months

    Every 6 months


    For patients with a history of gum disease

    Maintain oral health and prevent dental issues


    Deep clean (scaling and root planing)

    Monitor of gum health

    Evaluation of periodontal status

    Routine dental cleaning

    Tartar removal

    Oral examination


    Focuses on areas with deeper gum pockets and signs of gum disease

    Targets surface-level plaque and tartar buildup


    May be higher due to the need for more frequent visits and specialized procedures

    More affordable as it involves routine preventive care


    Longer appointments may be needed for thorough cleaning and assessment

    Shorter appointments for routine cleaning and check-ups


    Personalized oral hygiene instructions and recommendations

    Eegular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups

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